Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus
63BC ~ AD14
Born in 63 BC and originally named Gaius Octavius, he was the son of Gaius Octavius the governor of Macedonia and Atia, the niece of Julius Caesar.
In 44 BC, while studying, Caesar was assassinated and as he had no legitimate son to pass on his power to, his will determined that Gaius Octavius would become his heir. Mark Antony would later claim that the adoption was earned through sexual favours, a claim that was described by Suetonius as political slander.
He married three times, the first marriage to Clodia, Antony’s step daughter was never consummated and he divorced her to marry Scribonia, to who Octavius would have his only natural child Julia. The same day that Julia was born he divorced Scribonia to marry Livia.
In 31 BC the western half of the Roman Republic territory swore allegiance to Octavius and after the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra the east followed suit. After years of lack of authority however, both sides were reluctant to give Octavius complete and absolute power but his position demanded that he look after the well being of the territory. He marched on to Rome where he demanded the senate name him a consul, this was to mean that he would be required to give up personal armies but would have legal command of the legions of Rome.
In 27 BC he officially returned power to the senate which led to riots among his supporters and a compromise known as the First Settlement was reached which gave him authority over the west. This was the time that the senate gave him the title of Augustus which had more religious meaning than political.
He ruled from 27 BC to 14 AD.